Lesson: Pulse and Escaping from Meter
As bassists we have unique musical responsibilities in an ensemble whether it’s a symphony, jazz jam or rock group. We’re the foundation – the pulse. There is a pitfall that we must be careful to avoid and it’s ingrained in us through a lot of standard music education: we are bound by meter and notation. If you had to could you play a piece that alternates 5/4 and 3/2 every bar? We become comfortable in 2/4,3/4, 6/8 and 4/4 but that limits us as players. The exercises I’m going to present here will help break you free of meter and get you in touch with the true pulse that lies under the music. They are based on the works of Paul Hindemith. The sequence to these is important, I would highly recommend that you do them in order even if they seem somewhat simple at the beginning.
As a warning these exercises look deceptively simple. The concept here is to make you think differently about rhythm and to break away from meter. If you make these exercises (and creating similar exercises) a regular part of your practice routine the benefits will be huge.
The first thing you need to do is to start the pulse without any counting. There is no meter. Just tap with your hand and get the pulse to be consistent so you always have an equal interval of time.
After you have a steady pulse and you’re not counting a measure or a meter, sing or play a drone over the pulse. The horizontal line indicates the drone.
Straight forward so far right? Now sing or play the drone only over the beats indicated in the diagram. Make sure to give each beat it’s full value!
You can make up more exercises like this on your own, the point is that you are starting to think in terms of pulse and not in terms of meter. You have to get your inner pulse to be consistent while your instrument does something else. They are related but independent actions (this is the musical equivalent to rubbing your tummy and patting your head).
To add another twist, play these exercises again but use your other hand or use your feet. So do the exercises 1) tapping your feat 2) tapping with the left hand 3) tapping with the right hand all while playing or singing in time with the pulse. As you feel good with them start to pick up the pace and see how it goes.
Now we need to apply that to our musical notation. This is all an exercise in breaking free from meter and how we look at music. The lower string of quarter notes (dashed-notation) represent the tapped pulse, the upper string of notes and rests show what you will play or sing. Please forgive my staff-writing, it was significantly easier to write these exercises by hand compared to doing it on a computer. Remember, there is no meter! These are meant to be examples, make up more of your own as you feel comfortable.
Now we’ll add another layer of complexity and start putting the rests into the pulse. Try the following exercises, tapping with your foot, then left hand and then right hand while you play or sing. The same rules apply about the hand-writing and making your own examples.
Did the exercises in figure 5 give you trouble? They are not easy, so don’t let their simple look discourage you! Keep trying it slowly until you’re comfortable and then build speed. It’s more important to be accurate with the tones and the pulse than to be fast.
For the final exercises we have to add the element of pitch. So far we’ve always dealt with the same tone, but now we’ll break into 3 different pitches. One will be “low” another “middle” and another “high.” The absolute pitches themselves are not important, they must be consistently the same pitch however and retain their relationship to the other pitches. Sing the following exercises:
l = low
m = middle
h = high
1.m m h m m l m m h m m l
2.h m l m h m l m h m l m h
3.h l m m l h m l l m m h h m
4.l h h l m l h l m m h l h l m
Make up some of your own exercises using those three pitches as well. The more variety you introduce the more comfortable you will become.
These final exercises put it all together. The straight line denotes the “middle” pitch, with notes above the line being high and those below being low. The pulse is still the lower line. Keep the pulse going and work in these different pitched notes.
These exercises are the foundation. If you master this concept the next step is to apply it to pitches in meter and to a high variety of notation (sixteenth and thirty-second notes for example). You can keep progressively raising the difficulty of these exercises on your own and over time it will pay off. These are meant to make you think outside of meter and outside of notation – once you realize that all of this is related to the pulse it will become much easier. The benefits include improved sight reading, a better sense of time, and a better understanding of the foundation behind meter.