Series vs. Parallel Wired Pickups
Q: Could you explain in as simple terms as possible the difference between series and parallel circuitry in pickups? Could you offer some examples where one is more appropriate than the other? (I realize that this may boil down to a preference thing, if so, could you give examples where you would choose one over the other?) Thank you for your dedication to the “Ask Damian” column. With so much information on the web, it’s important to have go-to places for learning. You offer a vital and reliable resource to the bass community.
A: Thank you for the kind words! I’m thrilled to hear that people dig this series. I’m always amazed by the number of people that I meet all around the world who are dedicated readers. Thank you all!
Basically, when pickups are wired in series, the signal flows first through one pickup and then the other. In other words, the output of pickup 1 feeds to the input of pickup 2. This creates more resistance to the signal which translates into a beefier sound (as well as more volume. The output can be 30% hotter when wired in series).
When the pickups are wired in parallel, they are wired so that your signal goes into both pickups simultaneously and back out to be combined at the output. Your signal gets diverted into two separate signals and each flows to one pickup or the other, which then come back together at (or just before) the output jack of the instrument.
So you get a longer signal chain when wired in series as your one signal travels through both pickups, one after the other. In parallel, you have two shorter signal chains which are combined. This is why you have more resistance (and more beef and volume) when using pickups wired in series.
I know some players who have installed series/parallel switches on their Jazz basses in order to make them more versatile. The reasoning being that J-basses are typically wound in parallel but if you switched them to series, you could get it to sound more like a P-bass (especially if you favor that front pickup). Honestly, I don’t have a lot of experience with wiring and have typically just sought out basses that sounded the way I wanted and never dove too deeply beyond that, until a repair was necessary, at which point I’d contact a builder or repair person and ask what I needed to know in order to do the repair myself (i.e.: what kind of pot do I need, etc.) I like doing repairs myself as that’s how I learn about this stuff, and I’m still learning!
Personally, whenever I’ve had a bass with a switch for series/parallel, I almost never switched it to parallel because it seemed too anemic compared to the series wiring. But, I don’t slap and have always preferred a bigger, slightly more aggressive sound.
However, the parallel wiring does have more shimmer in the treble end of the spectrum. It’s also a smoother sound. Players who like the more modern “crispy” and pointed bass sound may prefer wiring in parallel. I could also imagine a bass made for slapping would be wired in parallel as those pops would really pop.
So, to my ears:
- Series: beefier, more aggressive sound. More lows and mids (and volume)
- Parallel: More of a trebly sound. More shimmer in the treble and less output
I hope that helps!
Readers, I’d love to hear from you on this subject. Please share your experience and thoughts on this topic in the comments.